A few month ago, while working on an app, I realized Java was lacking higher-order functions.


I realized this because of 2 reasons:

  • Around me a lot of people were using JavaScript, and discussing whether to use Ramda or Lodash, both being JavaScript libraries providing higer-order functions
  • I had been playing with retrolambda, which backports in particular lambdas and function references from Java 8

So, having functions close enough to being first-class objects, I was in need of higher-order functions to use them.

As a reminder, a few common higher-order functions:

  • map
  • filter
  • all
  • reduce (more on this one later, in a dedicated post) …


Because I like simple things, there was a few principles:

  • The library should be based on existing things. Less code to write, less bugs.
  • I need to be able to use it in code very easily. The library must be usable in an existing project, and must not shape the project.
  • It must be short and self-explanatory. This is a utility library, it should do what you think it should do, and you shouldn’t have to read the documentation.

Existing things

It revolves mostly around the the Iterable interface.

The Collection interface extends Iterable, so all collections, sets, lists,… could be used there. Iterable defines only one method, so it is easy and short to implement.

The FuncIter class is a decorator to Iterable, it adds features to an existing instance. Those features being, of course, the aforementioned higher-order functions.

Because of this, it takes very little code to write a function. As a simple example, here is the basic implementation of map:

public static <T, R> Iterable<R> map(Iterable<T> input, Func<T, R> func) {
  return () -> new Iterator<R>() {
      Iterator<T> iter = input.iterator();

      public boolean hasNext() {
          return iter.hasNext();

      public R next() {
          return func.call(iter.next());

(The actual implementation includes a wrapping in the decorator, omitted here for clarity.)

It is a grand total of 5 instructions, and it does exactly what it should do. No ifs, no loop, no error.

Easily integrated

Integration of the library is easy, as it should be. It is published on jCenter, so it is a matter of one line in your Gradle file (or a few in your Maven file).

As per the code itself, all functions are instance methods and static methods (taking the Iterable as the first parameter). You can chain them or call them in one shot.

Because it is a decorator of one of the most common interfaces, and because it also come with a wrapper around T[], you can use it with most of your existing objects.

Now, Iterable is usually not the most useful output. This is why there are a few collect functions to collect the iterable in an ArrayList or a HashMap.

A quick note on collect. This method returns an ArrayList, rather than a List. I covered that in a previous article. By returning an ArrayList, I guarantee that the returned object is a mutable list, with, for example, a complexity for getting an arbitrary item of O(1). It also means that I am not allowed to change it, ever. But I am OK with that.


The whole library fits in a single file, and has no dependency. It is compiled for Java 7 as it is what Android uses. If for some reason adding the Gradle dependency or including the jar file is not convenient, you can simply drop the unique source file in your project.

Each function itself is only a few lines long. Because of that, reading that piece of code will tell you more clearly what it does than the documentation could.

Because it is so short, I can guarantee that it is thoroughly tested, with the tests having 100% coverage (I am not just saying it, codecov attests to it).

Last word

So there you have it, a 300-line library (at the time of the writing), 100% tested, compatible with Java 7, containing the most common higher-order functions for your daily functional programming needs.