Following the previous post, a slightly more complete demo of Volley. Past the trivial make-a-JSON-request use case, this post will show what happens when you want to add headers, authentication, body… and use custom requests.

Having read the previous post is a plus, unless you already know about Volley.

All the code used here is available on github ( This post will use the Twitter application-only API, which requires a developer key. The key goes in the TwitterValue class. (see

This demo shows how to authenticate using OAuth2 and the bearer token, how to use a custom request to obtain a list of tweets, how to include the tweets in a ListView.


Twitter application-only authentication uses OAuth2. Details are given here

It is mostly a matter of making a POST request with a custom Authorization header and retrieve in the response a token that is used for the next requests in another custom Authorization header.

In order to do that, the best match in the collection of Request objects provided by Volley is StringRequest. It still requires to override the getParams() and getHeader() methods, as there is no setter for these values in the StringRequest class.

The TokenRequest class is as follows:

Nota: A JsonObjectRequest could also have been extended, but it would have also require to override getBodyContentType() and getBody(), and I fell that would quite change the meaning of the class, as a JsonObjectRequest is designed to have a JSON body, if any.

Getting the Bearer token from the String response is quite simple, simply create a JSONObject, get the access_token value, keep it somewhere.

Loading tweets

In this example, the twitter search API is used. A GET is to be made on the search URL, with the Bearer Authorization header. The Request in this case is TweetsRequest, which extends JsonObjectRequest to add the header (in the same fashion as the TokenRequest).

This request object is used by the TweetLoader that gets the parameters for the request (the search query, the max_id from the already loaded items), receives events from the EndlessScrollListener, and has a Listener<JSONObject> to populate the TweetAdapter (a simple ArrayAdapter that uses NetworkImageView and TextViews to display the basic info of the tweet). The TweetLoader is rather simple, but a bit long to be pasted here, the full code is there:

A few more things

This demo app also uses a search dialog, as described here, and an EndlessScrollListener that allows tweets to be loaded as needed, this comes mostly from The BitmapLru is the same as in the previous post.


Volley shows a few limitations in a more complex scenario:

Adding headers is a matter of extending a Request class. As such, a common header used in several types of Requests (typically JsonObjectRequest and JsonArrayRequest) requires duplicate overriding code.

ImageLoader instantiate exclusively ImageRequest. That means it is not possible without modifying Volley to add headers to ImageRequests, such as Authorization headers.

Requests sub-types have apparently been designed with a specific usage in mind. In fact, JsonArrayRequest, for example is exclusively a GET request, without possibility to change that unless overriding several methods, including getMethod() method and parameters/body are passed through the constructor, without possibility to set them afterward. That means the construction of the body must either happen outside the extending class or inside the super() call, which is not always possible in case some formatting is required.